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GLOSSARY OF TERMS


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- Alternating current (AC)
Electric current in which the direction of flow is reversed at frequent intervals--usually 100 or 120 times per second (50 or 60 cycles per second or 50//60 Hz).

- Apparent power
The mathematical product of voltage and current on ac systems. Since voltage and current may not be in phase on ac systems, the apparent power thus calculated may not equal the real power, but may actually exceed it. Reactive loads (inductance and/or capacitance) on ac systems will cause the apparent power to be larger than the real power.

- Available power
Gross lasting maximum active power that a generating unit can provide under safe mechanical and electric conditions.

- Azimuth
Angle between the north direction and the projection of the surface normal into the horizontal plane; measured clockwise from north. As applied to the PV array, 180 degree azimuth means the array faces due south.

- Battery
Two ormore electrochemical cells enclosed in a container and electrically interconnected in an appropriate series/parallel arrangement to provide the required operating voltage and currentlevels.Under common usage,the termbattery also appliesto a single cell ifit constitutesthe entire electrochemicalstorage system.

- Building permit
A type of authorization that must be granted by a government or other regulatory body before the construction of a new or existing building can legally occur.

- Capacity installed
The installed capacity is the maximum net electric output of the reporting power plants in ideal conditions.

- Connection point
Physical place in the electricity network where the electricity meter is installed.

- Connection request
Document requesting access to the electricity grid and issuance of connection approval.

- Direct current (DC)
A type of low voltage electrical current. DC electricity is produced by solar cells usually converted to AC.

- Green certificate
Document proving that 1 MWh of electricity is produced from renewable energy sources and supplied into the electricity network.

- Grid
A system of high tension cables in a region that distributes electricity to homes, businesses, and other buildings.

- Insolation
The amount of sunlight reaching an area. Usually expressed in milliwatts per square centimeter, or langleys.

- Inverter
A PV inverter is a type of electrical inverter that is made to change the direct current (DC) electricity from a photovoltaic array into alternating current (AC).

- Monocrystalline panel
A solar panel that’s made from a large, single silicon crystal and has a patchwork pattern. Monocrystalline panels are more expensive and more efficient than multi- or poly- crystalline panels. Poly’s can perform better in regions with high sun insolation.

- National electric power system - RPS
The electric power system located on the national territory. The Romanian Power System is the basic infrastructure jointly used by the electricity market participants.

- Photovoltaic
Photovoltaics is the process by which sunlight, or solar energy, is converted into energy, in the form of a direct current DC, using a material called a semiconductor.

- Photovoltaic cell
A device composed of specially prepared semiconductor material or material combinations exhibiting the ability to convert incident solar energy directly into electrical energy.

- Photovoltaic panel
A collection of one or more modules fastened together into a single unit, often factory pre- assembled and wired, forming a field-installable unit.

- Photovoltaic system
Number of solar panels, the inverter and the installation materials combine into a photovoltaic system. The size of a system is denominated in kWp (kilo-watt-peak), which is a measure of performance under standard testing conditions.

- Polycrystalline panel
A solar panel that’s made from small silicon crystals oriented in lots of different directions. Polycrystalline panels are less expensive and less efficient than monocrystalline panels.

- Reactive power
The mathematical product of voltage and current consumed by reactive loads. Examples of reactive loads include capacitors and inductors. These types of loads when connected to an ac voltage source will draw current, but since the current is 90o out of phase with the applied voltage they actually consume no real power in the ideal sense.

- Renewable energy
Flows of energy that are regenerative or virtually inexhaustible. Most commonly includes solar (electric and thermal), biomass, geothermal, wind, tidal, wave, and hydro power sources.

- Site approval
Site Approval is the written reply of the network operator to an application, stipulating the point of view related to the connection site proposal and to the coexistence with the operator's electricity networks.

- Solar energy
Electromagnetic energy transmitted from the sun, solar radiation.

- Technical connection approval
Written approval valid for a certain location only, to be issued by Transelectrica upon request from an user about the possibilities and conditions of transmission grid




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